Human Physiology: Respiration - Transport of Gases
A concise & in-depth summary of the transport of gases in respiration
- Methods of O2 transport
- Haemoglobin (structure, binding)
- Cooperative binding & factors that increase/decrease affinity to O2 (O2 dissociation & Bohr shift explained)
- CO2 transport (carbonic anhydrase reaction & chloride shift)
- CO2 & O2 exchange (uncoupling & bicarbonate reaction)
TRANSPORT IN ANIMALS
Full, descriptive and understandable notes for OCR A Level Biology (New Specification from - 2015). These notes make revision a whole lot easier in that they provide summarised topic based notes from the textbook. They include pictures, diagrams and key terms to consolidate bulks of information and to make the most important aspects of the topic stand out to aid revision. Guarantees can be placed on these notes as they have been made by a A2 Biology Student (Achieved an A in Biology at AS) so I can comprehend the difficulties placed in revision and understanding harder topics to reassure other students that these notes are WORTH IT!! Stop procrastinating and download these notes for a small price to help achieve your goals in education!
Bio 104 review Reece, Campbell 2017
Campbell Reese Biology ch 40-43 final exam study guide questions and answers
After surgical removal of the gallbladder, a person must be careful to limit intake of
26. What would happen if the amount of interstitial fluid surrounding the capillary beds of the lungs
were to increase significantly?
a. The amount of CO2 entering the lungs from the blood would increase.
b. The amount of CO2 entering the blood from the lungs would increase.
c. The amount of O2 entering circulation from the lungs would increase.
d. The amount of O2 entering circulation from the lungs would decrease.
e. The pressure would cause the capillary bed to burst.
27. Which of the following are the only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory
organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart?
28. Which sequence of blood flow can be observed in mammals?
a. left ventricle ! aorta ! lungs ! systemic circulation
b. right ventricle ! pulmonary vein ! pulmocutaneous circulation
c. pulmonary vein ! left atrium ! ventricle ! pulmonary circuit
d. vena cava ! right atrium ! ventricle ! pulmonary circuit
e. right atrium ! pulmonary artery ! left atrium ! ventricle
29. A nonfunctional SA node would
a. block conductance between the bundle branches and Purkinje fibers
b. disrupt the rate and timing of cardiac muscle contractions
c. block ventricular contractions
d. have little significant effect on stroke volume
e. B and D
30. What is measured by an electrocardiogram?
a. impulses from the AV node
b. impulses of the parasympathetic nervous system that control heart beat
c. the spread of impulses from the SA node
d. contraction of the two atria
e. systole and diastole
**Be able to match the parts of the ECG with the activity occurring at each stage.**
31. Where are the semilunar valves found?
a. where blood goes from the atria to the ventricles
b. on the right side of the heart only
c. where the pulmonary veins attach to the heart
d. where blood leaves via the aorta and pulmonary arteries
e. where the anterior and posterior venae cavae enter
32. Why is the velocity of blood flow the lowest in the capillaries?
a. The capillary walls are not thin enough to allow oxygen to exchange with the cells
b. Capillaries are far from the heart, and blood flow slows as distance from the heart
c. The diastolic blood pressure is too low to deliver blood to the capillaries at a high
d. The systemic capillaries are supplied by the left ventricle, which has a lower
cardiac output than the right ventricle.
e. The total surface area of the capillaries is larger than the total surface area of the arterioles.
33. Average blood pressure is lowest in which structure?
e. venae cavae
34. Why is fluid forced from the bloodstream to the surrounding tissues at the arteriole end of
a. The osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid is greater than the blood.
b. The hydrostatic pressure of the blood is less than that of the interstitial fluid.
c. The hydrostatic pressure of the blood is greater than the osmotic pressure of the
d. The osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid is greater than the hydrostatic
pressure of the blood.
e. The osmotic pressure of the blood is greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the
35. What would be the long-term effect if the lymphatic vessels associated with a capillary bed were to
a. More fluid would enter the venous capillaries.
b. Blood pressure in the capillary bed would increase.
c. Fluid would accumulate in interstitial areas.
d. Fewer proteins would leak into the interstitial fluid from the blood.
e. Nothing would happen.
36. Dialysis patients are weighed before and after dialysis (when blood is drawn, dialyzed, and
a. Small changes in body weight may signify changes in blood volume and pressure.
b. Many people who have dialysis are diabetic and must control weight carefully.
c. Dialysis removes blood proteins and these weigh more than the other blood
d. Dialysis is likely to cause edema and swelling must be controlled.
e. Reclining position during dialysis can cause a tendency for weight gain.
37. Which of the following is a cause of vasoconstriction?
a. lying down after standing
b. standing after lying down
c. stress of hormone concentration
d. increased blood pressure
e. histamine secretion
38. A blood vessel has an outer layer of connective tissue, a thick layer of smooth muscle with elastic
fibers, and no valves. It is a(n)
e. portal vessel
39. What is the function of plasma proteins in humans?
a. maintenance of blood osmotic pressure
b. transport of water-soluble lipids
c. gas exchange
d. aerobic metabolism
e. oxygen transport
40. The meshwork that forms a blood clot consists mostly of which proteins?
41. Which of the following is a normal event in the process of blood clotting?
a. production of erythropoietin
b. conversion of fibrin to fibrinogen
c. activation of prothrombin to thrombin
d. increase in platelets
e. clotting factor formation
42. Air rushes into the lungs during inhalation because
a. the rib muscles and diaphragm contract, increasing the lung volume
b. pressure in the alveoli increases
c. gas flows from a region of lower pressure to a region of higher pressure
d. pulmonary muscles contract and pull on the outer surface of the lungs
e. a positive respiratory pressure is caused when the diaphragm relaxes.
43. Which of the following occurs with the exhalation of air from human lungs?
a. The volume of the thoracic cavity decreases.
b. The residual volume of the lungs decreases.
c. The diaphragm contracts.
d. The epiglottis closes.
e. The rib cage expands.
44. Which of the following lung volumes change in a person at rest compared with a person exercising?
a. vital capacity
b. tidal volume
c. residual volume
d. total lung capacity
e. all of the above
45. The blood level of which gas is most important in controlling human respiration rate?
a. nitric acid
d. carbon dioxide
e. carbon monoxide
46. The Bohr shift on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve is produced by changes in
a. the partial pressure of oxygen
b. the partial pressure of carbon monoxide
c. hemoglobin concentration
47. How is most of the carbon dioxide transported by the blood in humans?
a. CO2 attached to hemoglobin
b. bicarbonate ions in the plasma
c. CO2 dissolved in the plasma
d. carbonic acid in the erythrocytes
e. bicarbonate attached to the hemoglobin
48. Hydrogen ions produced in human red blood cells are prevented from significantly lowering pH by
a. plasma proteins
c. carbon dioxide
d. carbonic acid
e. plasma buffers
49. Pulse is a direct measurement of
a. blood pressure
b. stroke volume
c. cardiac output
d. heart rate
e. breathing rate
50. Both the eye and the respiratory tract are protected against infections by which of the following?
a. the mucous membranes that cover their surface
b. the secretion of complement proteins
c. the release of slightly acidic secretions
d. the secretion of lysozyme onto their surface
e. interferons produced by immune cells
51. What is true of the complement system?
a. These proteins are involved in innate immunity and not acquired immunity.
b. These proteins are secreted by cytotoxic T cells and other CD8 cells.
c. This group of proteins includes interferons and interleukins.
d. The proteins are one group of antimicrobial proteins acting together in a cascade.
e. The proteins act individually to attack and lyse microbes.
52. Which cells and signaling molecules are responsible for initiating an inflammatory response?
a. phagocytes; lysozymes
b. phagocytes; chemokines
c. dendritic cells; interferons
d. mast cells; histamines
e. lymphocytes; interferons
53. A bacterium entering the body through a small cut in the skin will do which of the following?
a. inactivate the erythrocytes
b. stimulate apoptosis of nearby blood cells
c. stimulate release of interferons
d. stimulate natural killer cell activity
e. activate a group of proteins called complement
54. Histamines trigger dilation of nearby blood vessels and increase their permeability. What signs of
inflammation are associated with histamine release?
d. pain and swelling
e. redness, heat, and swelling
55. What are antigens?
a. proteins found in the blood that cause foreign blood cells to clump
b. proteins embedded in B cell membranes
c. proteins that consist of two light and two heavy polypeptide chains
d. foreign molecules that trigger the generation of antibodies
e. proteins released during an inflammatory response
56. Clonal selection implies that
a. siblings have similar immune responses
b. antigens increase mitosis in specific lymphocytes
c. only certain cells can produce interferon
d. a B cell has multiple types of antigen receptors
e. the body selects which antigens it will respond to
57. Clonal selection explains how
a. a single type of stem cell can produce both red blood cells and white blood cells
b. V, J, and C gene segments are rearranged
c. an antigen can provoke production of high levels of specific antibodies
d. HIV can disrupt the immune system
e. macrophages can recognize specific T cells and B cells.
58. Which type of cells is responsible for initiating a secondary immune response?
a. Memory cells
c. Stem cells
d. B cells