Fin De Siècle Angst
Towards the end of the nineteenth century some of the fundamental assumptions that had underpinned the post 1870 social order were increasingly being called into question. Since the advent of mass democracy, fear of \'the masses\' had begun to displace faith in \'the people\'. The advance in science, which earlier in the century had seemed entirely compatible with religious belief, increasingly seemed to undermine Christian faith. All of this responded to and exacerbated the sense of fin de siècle (end of century angst).
Yet in many ways the fin de siècle was also a profoundly optimistic period. It witnessed extraordinary technological, artistic and intellectual innovation and paved the way for better and worse for much of the twentieth century. Historians are divided on how to define this period, it starts in about 1880 and goes up to 1914 with the outbreak of the first world war. A period of rapid change in many sectors of life in Europe, science, society technology and culture.
This outlines many aspects of the angst, going into details on society, health, wages, education, technology, culture, urbanization, mass politics, the decline or religion and the rise of science.
Also touches on, social theory, degeneracy and epistemological optimism/pessimism.