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SOCL 2001 sociology test bank

sociology test bank Chapter 1 Multiple Choice 1. As defined by C. Wright Mills, which of the following “enables us to grasp history and biography and the relations between the two within society”? a. formal sociology b. sociological imagination c. microsociology d. macrosociology ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 5 TOP: Factual OBJ: Sociological Imagination 2. Feeling discomfort about rural Chinese society, where many generations of a family sleep in the same bed, is known as: a. xenophobia. b. Verstehen. c. social identity. d. social ecology. ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 6–7 TOP: Applied OBJ: Sociological Imagination 3. How does the textbook author use dialogue from Pulp Fiction, in which the characters discuss how in Holland people put mayonnaise on their french fries? a. to introduce the sociology of film b. to explain the sociological imagination c. to explain social institutions d. to define formal sociology ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 7 TOP: Applied OBJ: Sociological Imagination 4. A female manager is attempting to climb her way to the top of the corporate ladder. She works as hard, if not harder, than her male colleagues, but nothing she seems to do helps her advance. She begins to notice that males are being promoted, but females tend to be overlooked for advancements. The realization that many women in her circumstance are experiencing the same discrimination is an example of: a. anomie. b. Verstehen. c. sociological imagination. d. social cohesion. ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: Page 5 TOP: Applied OBJ: Sociological Imagination 5. Sociologists and economists have shown that the benefits of higher education include higher median incomes for college graduates. This is known as: a. educational investment. b. the returns to schooling. c. study hard or be poor. d. get an education; get a job. ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 8 TOP: Factual OBJ: Returns to Schooling 6. After doing some sociological math, what is the net difference between the annual earnings of the average high school versus college graduate? a. about $5,000 per year b. about $10,000 per year c. about $15,000 per year d. about $50,000 per year ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: Page 9 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Returns to Schooling 7. According to Randall Collins’s (1979) research, the expansion of higher education is: a. mainly caused by the globalization of capitalism. b. likely caused by less-prepared high school students entering college. c. a result of credentialism and expenditures on formal education. d. a result of increasing governmental interference in educational funding. ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: Page 11 TOP: Factual OBJ: Credentialism 8. According to research used to question credentialism, what might it cost to buy a college diploma online? a. $29.95 b. $99.99 c. $250.00 d. at least $1,000 ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 11 TOP: Factual OBJ: Credentialism 9. In today’s society, Randall Collins might suggest that getting a “piece of paper” is more important to many than actually having the knowledge to do a job. He calls the priority placed on formal education: a. secondary education. b. credentialism. c. normlessness. d. xenophobia. ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Page 11 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Credentialism 10. All of the following are examples of social institutions used to prevent websites from undermining colleges’ degree-conferring abilities EXCEPT: a. copyright law. b. police forces. c. employers. d. families. ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 11 TOP: Factual OBJ: Social Institutions 11. Which of the following is defined as a set of stories embedded within a social network about the standard ways a society meets its needs? a. a social identity b. a social institution c. a theory d. anomie ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 12 TOP: Factual OBJ: Social Institutions 12. The author of your text states that the most age-segregated social institution in our society is: a. a hospital. b. a mental institution. c. a prison. d. a four-year college. ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 12 TOP: Factual OBJ: Social Institutions 13. A family, as a group of people living together sharing individual stories, makes up a(n): a. social institution. b. conflict institution. c. anomic institution. d. creative institution. ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Page 13 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Social Institutions 14. The Phillip Morris Company changed its name to Altira in an attempt to start a new: a. line of cigarettes. b. defense against law suits. c. social identity. d. multinational company. ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 13 TOP: Factual OBJ: Social Identity 15. The “grand narrative” that constitutes a social identity: a. is nothing more than a sum of individual stories told between pairs of individuals. b. remains the same throughout time. c. can only be defined by the individual him- or herself. d. is best displayed online on MySpace and Facebook. ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 13 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Social Identity 16. As a formal field, sociology is a relatively ____________ discipline, as discussed in Chapter 1. a. old b. established c. young d. conservative ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 15 TOP: Factual OBJ: Early Sociological Theory 17. Who was the author of the first methods book in the discipline of sociology? a. Emile Durkheim b. Harriet Martineau c. Jane Addams d. Max Weber ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 18 TOP: Factual OBJ: August Comte and Harriet Martineau 18. In the book How to Observe Morals and Manners, the institution of marriage is criticized as: a. based on an assumption of the inferiority of women. b. based on an assumption of the inferiority of men. c. reinforcing compulsory heterosexuality. d. perpetuating social class stratification. ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 18 TOP: Factual OBJ: August Comte and Harriet Martineau | Feminist Theory 19. Which of the following sociologists developed the theory of positivism? a. Auguste Comte b. Emile Durkheim c. Karl Marx d. Max Weber ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 15 TOP: Factual OBJ: Positivism 20. Positivism is best defined as: a. the idea that we can scientifically and logically study social institutions and the individuals within them. b. the effect of religion on social institutions and the individuals within them. c. the study of the symbolic interactions between social institutions and the individuals within them. d. the relationship between scientific and religious social institutions. ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Page 16 TOP: Factual OBJ: Positivism 21. According to Comte, positivism arose out of a need to make ____________ sense of the social order in a time of declining religious authority. a. scientific b. moral c. rational d. economic ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 16 TOP: Factual OBJ: Positivism 22. The person that is often considered to be the founding father of positivism is: a. Émile Durkheim. b. Karl Marx. c. Georg Simmel. d. George Herbert Mead. ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 23 TOP: Factual OBJ: Positivism 23. All of the following are known as the three epistemological stages of human society, as explained by Comte, EXCEPT: a. the theological stage. b. the metaphysical stage. c. the scientific stage. d. the post-scientific stage. ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Pages 16–17 TOP: Factual OBJ: Epistemological Stages 24. Which of the three historical epistemological stages of human society did Comte explain was highlighted by Enlightenment thinking such as Rousseau’s, Mill’s, and Hobbes’s beliefs in biological causes for human behavior? a. the theological stage b. the metaphysical stage c. the scientific stage d. the post-scientific stage ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 17 TOP: Factual OBJ: Epistemological Stages 25. Which of the three historical epistemological stages of human society did Comte claim was characterized by the development of social physics to explain human behavior? a. the theological stage b. the metaphysical stage c. the scientific stage d. the post-scientific stage ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 17 TOP: Factual OBJ: Epistemological Stages 26. Which of the three historical epistemological stages did Comte argue would explain human society by consulting the Bible or other religious texts? a. the theological stage b. the metaphysical stage c. the scientific stage d. the post-scientific stage ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 16 TOP: Factual OBJ: Epistemological Stages 27. Which of the following are known as “the founding fathers of the sociological discipline”? a. Comte, Martineau, and Marx b. Martineau, Addams, and Weber c. Durkheim, Marx, and Weber d. Cooley, Park, and Mead ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 18 TOP: Factual OBJ: Classical Sociology 28. Which of the following founders of sociology is known, in part, for having his writings become the basis of Communism? a. Auguste Comte b. Émile Durkheim c. Karl Marx d. Max Weber ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 19 TOP: Factual OBJ: Karl Marx 29. To Marx, conflict between a small number of capitalists and a large number of workers would divide society. He referred to this large number of workers as: a. employees. b. proletariat. c. subordinates. d. slaves. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 20 TOP: Factual OBJ: Karl Marx 30. Karl Marx would argue that the types of social institutions in a society were the result of the economic makeup of that society. Max Weber, however, argued that: a. there are no social institutions in a society. b. there are multiple influences (e.g., religion) on how social institutions are created. c. social institutions are not influenced by the economy, but by the individuals in them. d. the epistemological stage of that society influenced the social institutions. ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Page 21 TOP: Applied OBJ: Karl Marx | Max Weber 31. Who criticized Marx for focusing exclusively on economics and social class as explanations for human behavior, and advocated sociological analyses that allowed for multiple influences? a. Auguste Comte b. Harriet Martineau c. Georg Simmel d. Max Weber ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 21 TOP: Factual OBJ: Max Weber 32. Who wrote The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism? a. Karl Marx b. Georg Simmel c. Harriet Martineau d. Max Weber ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 21 TOP: Factual OBJ: Max Weber 33. The author of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism argued that sociologists should study social behavior from the perspective of the people engaging in it. This is known as: a. functionalism. b. historical materialism. c. xenophobia. d. Verstehen. ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 21 TOP: Factual OBJ: Verstehen 34. Max Weber would say we need to understand, from their perspective, not from our own, why many generations of Chinese sleep together in rural China. He called this: a. anomie. b. normlessness. c. Verstehen. d. positivism. ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: Page 21 TOP: Applied OBJ: Verstehen 35. Which of the following is the study of social meanings that emphasizes subjectivity in understanding human behavior? a. interpretive sociology b. formal sociology c. social ecology d. positivism ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 21 TOP: Factual OBJ: Interpretive Sociology 36. The Division of Labor in Society was the first of many sociological contributions from: a. Auguste Comte. b. Émile Durkheim. c. Karl Marx. d. Max Weber. ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 22 TOP: Factual OBJ: Émile Durkheim 37. According to the theory of social solidarity, the division of labor in a society helps to determine: a. the sociological contribution of individuals. b. the way urbanism affects the cohesion of individuals. c. the way social cohesion among individuals is maintained. d. the way social norms are created and maintained. ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: Pages 22–23 TOP: Factual OBJ: Émile Durkheim 38. Which of the following sociologists wrote Suicide in 1897? a. Auguste Comte b. Émile Durkheim c. Karl Marx d. Max Weber ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 23 TOP: Factual OBJ: Émile Durkheim 39. According to Suicide, one of the main social forces leading to suicide is a sense of normlessness that results from drastic changes in society. This normlessness was called: a. anomie. b. the division of labor. c. social solidarity. d. functionalism. ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 23 TOP: Factual OBJ: Anomie 40. American sociology in the United States began at which of the following universities? a. American University b. University of Chicago c. New York University (NYU) d. Columbia University ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 24 TOP: Factual OBJ: The Chicago School 41. The basic premise of the Chicago School was that human behaviors and personalities are shaped by social and physical environments. This is known as: a. formal sociology. b. interpretive sociology. c. social ecology. d. Verstehen. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 24 TOP: Factual OBJ: The Chicago School 42. Which early U.S. sociologist told other sociologists in the Chicago School to “go out and get the seats of [their] pants dirty in real research”? a. Charles H. Cooley b. George H. Mead c. Robert Park d. Louis Wirth ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 24 TOP: Factual OBJ: The Chicago School 43. The Chicago School’s main laboratory for sociological research was: a. the city of Chicago itself. b. the second floor of the University of Chicago’s dormitories. c. the state of Illinois. d. the states of Illinois and Ohio. ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 24 TOP: Factual OBJ: The Chicago School 44. According to your textbook’s author, Chicago School researcher Louis Wirth’s essay, “Urbanism as a Way of Life,” might be classified as which of the following today? a. cultural sociology b. formal sociology c. interpretive sociology d. historical materialism ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: Page 24 TOP: Factual OBJ: The Chicago School 45. “If men define situations as real they are real in their consequences” is the theory of which of the following Chicago School theorists? a. Robert Park b. Charles H. Cooley c. George H. Mead d. W. I. Thomas ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 25 TOP: Factual OBJ: The Chicago School 46. The Chicago School was a good place to study community-based social ecology. Why? a. The residents were closely related and could communicate with each other easily. b. The population was rapidly growing due to foreign immigration and the influx of African Americans from the rural South. c. Industrialization was waning in Chicago during this time, and this caused high rates of poverty and crime. d. The divorce rate in Chicago at the time was double that of other large cities. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 24 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: The Chicago School 47. Charles H. Cooley argued that the “self” emerges from how an individual interacts with others and then interprets those interactions. He calls this: a. the looking-glass self. b. the social self. c. the generalized other. d. the significant other. ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 25 TOP: Factual OBJ: Looking-Glass Self 48. George H. Mead described how the “self” internalizes the views of society as a whole, transcending the individual and particular situations. He calls this larger society: a. the significant other. b. the generalized other. c. the looking-glass self. d. the social self. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 25 TOP: Factual OBJ: The Generalized Other 49. The Chicago School’s Jane Addams founded the first American settlement house, an institution to help the poor by offering aid, educational services, and more. This house is known as: a. the Chicago School. b. the Addams House. c. the Hull House. d. the University of Chicago. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 27 TOP: Factual OBJ: Jane Addams 50. Which of the following was the first African American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard University? a. W. E. B. Du Bois b. Jane Addams c. Oprah Winfrey d. Barack Obama ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 25 TOP: Factual OBJ: W. E. B. Du Bois 51. Which of the following applied Durkheim’s theory of anomie to explain crime rates among African Americans after the abolition of slavery in the United States? a. W. E. B. Du Bois b. Jane Addams c. Robert Park d. Charles H. Cooley ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 26 TOP: Factual OBJ: W. E. B. Du Bois 52. A white person goes into an upscale shop to look at clothes. (S)he is excited to see that there is a sale and gathers a huge pile of clothes to take into the dressing room. An African American goes into the store and is excited about the sale, but hesitates to take many clothes into the dressing room, afraid that staff will think he or she might shoplift. W. E. B. Du Bois would say that the African American has: a. prejudice. b. low self-esteem. c. double consciousness. d. a negative self-image. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 26 TOP: Applied OBJ: Double Consciousness 53. Which of the following modern sociological theories states that the best way to analyze society is to identify the purpose that different aspects or phenomena play in the overall structure of society? a. postmodernism b. feminism c. conflict theory d. functionalism ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Page 27 TOP: Applied OBJ: Functionalism 54. The intended purpose of desegregation of schools in the 1950s was to make education equal for everyone. What was not intended was that many racial minority teachers and principals lost their jobs. This unintended purpose was called a(n) ____________ function by functionalist theorist Talcott Parsons. a. unintended b. manifest c. mistaken d. latent ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 27 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Manifest and Latent Functions 55. In contrast to functionalism, which modern sociological theory borrows from Marx’s belief that competition, not consensus, is the essential cause of social change? a. conflict theory b. feminism c. postmodernism d. midrange theory ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 28 TOP: Factual OBJ: Conflict Theory 56. The functionalist paradigm went largely unchallenged in the United States until around the 1950s. C. Wright Mills criticized Talcott Parsons for: a. spending too much time on the negative aspects of society. b. supporting the dominant class structure and the inequalities associated with it. c. addressing only the inequalities of classes. d. focusing on small-scale personal interactions and not the “whole picture.” ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Page 28 TOP: Factual OBJ: Conflict Theory 57. The two words that might describe the difference between conflict theory and functionalism are: a. competition versus consensus. b. microsociology versus macrosociology. c. meaning versus understanding. d. feminist versus Marxist. ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Page 29 TOP: Applied OBJ: Conflict Theory | Functionalism 58. Which feminist sociologist wrote Sex, Gender, and Society (1972), in which she or he argued that much of what we attribute to biological sex differences can actually be traced to learned behaviors and socialization? a. Jane Addams b. Harriet Martineau c. Ann Oakley d. W. E. B. Du Bois ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 29 TOP: Factual OBJ: Feminist Theory 59. Which modern sociological theory examines how power relationships are defined, shaped, and reproduced on the basis of gender differences? a. feminism b. functionalism c. human sexuality d. midrange theory ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 29 TOP: Factual OBJ: Feminist Theory 60. Which modern sociological theory explains social behavior by examining the meanings that social signals and signs represent to individuals? a. feminism b. functionalism c. symbolic interactionism d. postmodernism ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 29–30 TOP: Factual OBJ: Symbolic Interactionism 61. What do symbolic interactionists study? a. midrange theory b. postmodernism c. functionalism d. shared meaning ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 30 TOP: Factual OBJ: Symbolic Interactionism 62. Erving Goffman used the language of theater to describe how people present themselves in everyday social life. This is known as: a. sui generis b. dramaturgical theory c. functionalism d. stage theory ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 30 TOP: Factual OBJ: Dramaturgical Theory 63. Which of the following modern sociological theories argues that there are no shared, objective meanings? a. feminism b. conflict theory c. postmodernism d. functionalism ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: Page 30 TOP: Factual OBJ: Postmodernism 64. Postmodern sociologists argue that all so-called objective phenomena are open to debate because all meaning is subjective. Thus, to postmodernists, all “facts” are really: a. social constructs. b. myths. c. lies. d. propaganda. ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Page 30 TOP: Applied OBJ: Postmodernism 65. Some postmodern sociologists work to show us how all social phenomena are created arbitrarily by people with varying degrees of power. This is known as: a. social ecology. b. anomie. c. Verstehen. d. deconstructing. ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Page 30 TOP: Factual OBJ: Postmodernism 66. Native Americans may see the history of the United States differently than white Europeans. Which theory is concerned with the fact that history may be interpreted differently by these dissimilar groups? a. midrange theory b. postmodernism c. symbolic interactionism d. functionalism ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Page 30 TOP: Applied OBJ: Postmodernism 67. Robert Merton’s modern sociological theory focused on attempting to predict how certain social institutions function between microsociology and macrosociology. This is known as: a. midrange theory. b. a compromise. c. centralism. d. postmodernism. ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Pages 30–31 TOP: Factual OBJ: Midrange Theory 68. In the discipline of history, focusing on historical figures such as Adolf Hitler is known as: a. “great man” theories. b. people’s histories. c. historiography. d. historical materialism. ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 32 TOP: Factual OBJ: Sociology and Its Cousins 69. Explaining unique cases is the focus of most historians, whereas the comparative method is the staple of the sociologist. This comparative method is also known as: a. people’s histories. b. the nomothetic approach. c. counterfactual. d. historiography. ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Page 32 TOP: Factual OBJ: Sociology and Its Cousins 70. Which area within the discipline of anthropology is most similar to sociology? a. physical anthropology b. cultural anthropology c. genetic anthropology d. forensic anthropology ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 33 TOP: Factual OBJ: Sociology and Its Cousins 71. In sociology’s “cousin,” psychology, the focus is on the individual. In sociology, the focus is above or beyond the individual, on group-level dynamics and social structures. This is known as: a. intra-individual b. inter-individual c. supra-individual d. super-individual ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: Page 35 TOP: Factual OBJ: Sociology and Its Cousins 72. The examination of human behavior within a rational actor model is the focus of which of the following “cousins” of sociology? a. anthropology b. economics c. psychology d. the biological sciences ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 35 TOP: Factual OBJ: Sociology and Its Cousins 73. Sociology is the study of: a. how urges, drives and the mind can account for human behavior. b. group-level dynamics and social structures. c. the underlying variation or causal mechanisms within the biological nature of individuals. d. humans as rational utility maximizers. ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Page 35 Factual OBJ: Sociology and Its Cousins 74. While historians are more likely to focus on the unique case, sociologists would more likely focus on: a. competition. b. inequalities resulting from history. c. commonalities. d. small scale interactions. ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: Page 32 TOP: Factual OBJ: Sociology and Its Cousins 75. Economists tend to see humans as ____________, but sociologists would tend to include ____________: a. irrational actors; deceit. b. rational actors; emotional motivations. c. emotional actors; rationality. d. emotional actors; emotionlessness ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Page 36 TOP: Factual OBJ: Sociology and Its Cousins 76. Which of the following focuses its analyses on face-to-face encounters and interactions? a. microsociology b. macrosociology c. social ecology d. cultural sociology ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 37 TOP: Factual OBJ: Microsociology versus Macrosociology 77. Which of the following focuses its analyses on larger social dynamics at the societal and structural levels? a. microsociology b. macrosociology c. social ecology d. social psychology ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 38 TOP: Factual OBJ: Microsociology versus Macrosociology 78. Perhaps the largest division within the discipline of sociology exists between which of the following? a. interpretive and positivist sociology b. qualitative and quantitative sociology c. functionalist and feminist sociology d. conflict and symbolic interactionist sociology ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Page 37 TOP: Applied OBJ: Divisions within Sociology Chapter 2 Multiple Choice 1. The two broad approaches social scientists use to gather data about the social world are: a. deductive and inductive. b. qualitative and quantitative. c. implicit and explicit. d. correlational and causal. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Pages 42–43 TOP: Factual OBJ: Research Methods 2. A sociologist’s subject matter presents some difficult research problems of a kind that natural scientists rarely have to deal with. Which of the following does NOT describe such a problem? a. A sociologists is part of the very subject he or she is studying. b. For ethical reasons, it is not permissible to do particular kinds of studies on people. c. It is possible to have completely controlled experiments to delineate cause and effect relationships. d. The causes of social behavior are usually multiple, complex, and intricate. ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 67 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Research Methods 3. Norm is interested in whether pet owners are more likely than those who do not own pets to have healthier lifestyles (excercise regularly, drink moderately, refrain from nicotine use, etc.). By comparing the numbers he gathers on both groups, Norm will most likely be using what particular research method? a. quantitative b. inductive c. deductive d. qualitative ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 42 TOP: Applied OBJ: Quantitative Research 4. The research method that uses statistical analysis to describe the social world is: a. qualitative research. b. quantitative research. c. deductive research. d. inductive research. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 42 TOP: Factual OBJ: Quantitative Research 5. What type of research describes people’s behavior in rich detail and focuses on the meanings people give to their actions? a. inductive research b. qualitative research c. quantitative research d. deductive research ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 43 TOP: Factual OBJ: Qualitative Research 6. Elizabeth would like to conduct a study to determine how women define spousal abuse and the meanings they attach to their abuse. What research method will Elizabeth most likely use? a. quantitative b. inductive c. qualitative d. deductive ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 43 TOP: Applied OBJ: Qualitative Research 7. If Kate begins her research with a theory, then forms hypotheses and makes some observations, what method is she using? a. independent b. dependent c. inductive d. deductive ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 43 TOP: Applied OBJ: Deductive Approach 8. Which of the following describes the deductive approach to research? a. A researcher makes some observations, and based on these observations develops a theory. b. A researcher develops some hypotheses to explain a correlation observed between two variables. c. A researcher starts with a theory, forms hypotheses, makes observations, and then analyzes the data. d. A researcher develops some hypotheses that lead to a theory about human behavior. ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 43 TOP: Factual OBJ: Deductive Approach 9. Which approach to sociological research starts with empirical observations and then works to form a theory? a. statistical b. observational c. inductive d. deductive ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 43 TOP: Factual OBJ: Inductive Approach 10. Paula begins to notice there are patterns to where people sit on the bus, and that these patterns differ depending on whether the rider is male or female. Based on these observations she generates larger ideas (theories) about why men and women differ. This is an example of which kind of research approach? a. deductive b. inductive c. quantitative d. a case study ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 43 TOP: Applied OBJ: Inductive Approach 11. Which of the following is an example of a correlation? a. People who work harder have higher income. b. People with better health work harder. c. The more income a person makes, the easier it is to retire. d. People with higher levels of income tend to enjoy better overall health. ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 44 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Correlation 12. A correlation is: a. a change in one variable that is caused by another. b. a simultaneous change in two variables. c. a relationship between two moderating variables. d. a relationship between cause and effect. ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 44 TOP: Factual OBJ: Correlation 13. When one factor is said to influence another factor, we refer to this as: a. correlation. b. association. c. causation. d. mediation. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 46 TOP: Factual OBJ: Causality 14. All of the following are factors needed to establish causality EXCEPT: a. correlation. b. time order. c. ruling out alternative explanations. d. panel study results. ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 46 TOP: Factual OBJ: Causality 15. Which of the following is more difficult to do in social science research? a. to say that two things change at the same time b. to establish that something is the cause of something else c. to argue that two things are related d. to propose a relationship between two variables ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 46 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Causality 16. Martine is a sociologist who thinks that A is causing B, when in fact, B is causing A. She needs to be careful to not make the mistake known as: a. operationalization. b. reverse causality. c. deduction. d. induction. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 47 TOP: Applied OBJ: Reverse Causality 17. In establishing causation, it helps to know which variable precedes the other in time. If not, it is easy to make a mistake involving: a. reverse causality. b. spurious causality. c. alternative explanations. d. time order. ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Page 47 TOP: Factual OBJ: Reverse Causality 18. Andy hypothesized that the stress created during economic downturns would increase the probablility of spousal abuse. Stress would be considered the ____________ variable, and spousal abuse would be considered the ____________ variable. a. dependent; independent b. key; affected c. moderating; dependent d. independent; dependent ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 48 TOP: Applied OBJ: Variables 19. Professor Clayton hypothesizes that travel to other countries increases students’ abilities to do well in advanced sociology classes. Which variable is the independent variable? a. Professor Clayton b. travel to other countries c. other cultures d. students’ abilities ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 48 TOP: Applied OBJ: Variables 20. Factors that affect the relationship between an independent and dependent variable are known as: a. operationalized variables. b. moderating variables. c. mediating variables. d. spurious variables. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 49 TOP: Factual OBJ: Variables 21. A variable that is thought to be influenced by another variable is known as the: a. dependent variable b. independent variable c. key independent variable d. spurious variable ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 48 TOP: Factual OBJ: Dependent Variables 22. A variable that is thought to cause a change in another variable is called the: a. dependent variable. b. independent variable. c. spurious variable. d. intervening variable. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 48 TOP: Factual OBJ: Independent Variables 23. A testable statement about the relationship between two or more variables is called a(n): a. operationalization. b. reliability. c. hypothesis. d. natural experiment. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 48 TOP: Factual OBJ: Hypothesis 24. To define a term (or variable) in such a way so that it can be examined and measured is the process known as: a. survey construction. b. hypothesizing. c. causal connection. d. operationalization. ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 48 TOP: Factual OBJ: Operationalization 25. If Jose’s study measures religiosity by the number of hours people spend in organized religous activities, while Deidra’s study measures religiosity by whether people agree or disagree that religion plays an important part in their life, Jose and Deidra: a. will not be able to compare their research findings. b. operationalize their concepts of religion differently. c. have different hypotheses about the role of religion in their study. d. have very different independent and dependent variables. ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 48 TOP: Applied OBJ: Operationalization 26. When a researcher is successful at measuring what (s)he intends to measure, this is called: a. validity. b. reliability. c. response rate. d. generalizability. ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 50 TOP: Factual OBJ: Validity 27. In her study, Darby is using church membership as an indicator of how religious a person is. She discovers that some “very religious” people rarely attend church. Darby may conclude that: a. religiosity is a dependent variable. b. her measure of religiosity lacks validity. c. church attendance is a reliable indicator. d. there is reverse causality between church attendance and religion. ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 50 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Validity 28. A standard yardstick measures 36 inches, but Sarah is using a “faulty” yardstick (one that measures 40 inches long) to measure the campers in her youth group. Sarah will not get a(n) ____________ indication of height, but she will have a(n) ____________ measure of height. a. reliable; valid b. consistent; accurate c. valid; reliable d. accurate; generalizable ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 50 TOP: Applied OBJ: Validity | Reliability 29. The likelihood that a researcher will obtain the same result using the same measures the next time she or he tests a hypothesis is: a. validity. b. reliability. c. response rate. d. generalizability. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 50 TOP: Factual OBJ: Reliability 30. The more consistent the results given by repeated measurements, the higher the ____________ of the measurement procedure (and vice versa). a. reliability b. validity c. efficiency d. responsiveness ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 50 TOP: Factual OBJ: Reliability 31. The extent to which a researcher can claim that his or her findings explain a larger population than was studied is known as: a. validity. b. reliability. c. responsiveness. d. generalizability. ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 50 TOP: Factual OBJ: Generalizability 32. Based on the results of a representative sample of students at his high school, Jack claims that “the majority of high school students today believe premarital sex is wrong.” Jack may be “speaking beyond his data” since the results he obtained may not easily translate to the attitudes of other high school students across the United States. This concern addresses the study’s: a. validity. b. generalizability. c. reliability. d. reflexivity. ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 50 TOP: Applied OBJ: Generalizability 33. If Sandra wants to generalize the findings of her study to another (possibly larger) population, it is important that the people in her study be: a. randomly selected from the populaton she wants to generalize to. b. varied in their characteristics so that there will be no problems. c. aware of her intentions, so the study will be valid and reliable. d. representative of the group(s) she wants to generalize to. ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 50 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Generalizability 34. Because they are an accessible population, sociologists sometimes use undergraduate students in their research. In relation to the concept of generalizability in science, this tendency could represent a potential defect in research because: a. college undergraduates do not have the right to refuse without suffering negative consequences. b. the experiences of college undergraduates do not provide a legitimate empirical resource. c. college undergraduates are not a subset of the general population. d. college undergraduates are not typical of the public at large. ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Page 53 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Generalizability 35. Ethnographer Mitchell Duneier spent five years hanging out with booksellers on the streets of Manhattan. His role as both researcher and participant provides a great example of the importance of: a. maintaining firm boundaries between the role of researcher and the role of participant. b. staying true to the ethical principles of the scientific method in our research. c. critically assessing how our role as reseachers may affect the people we study. d. maintaining distance from those we study so that our results are not contaminated. ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 51, 54 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Researcher’s Role 36. What is the meaning of the term “white coat” effects in social research? a. the structuring of a research project to maintain total anonymity b. the impact researchers may have on the people/relationships they study c. the change in subject’s behavior when researchers wear white coats d. when researchers “put on the charm” to get compliance from their subjects ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 50 TOP: Factual OBJ: Experimenter Effects 37. If Juanita practices ____________ in her research, she carefully considers how her role as researcher may affect those that she studies (the researched). a. reflexivity b. selective attention c. empathy d. common sense ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 50 TOP: Factual OBJ: Reflexivity 38. Which of the following is true regarding value judgments made by sociologists conducting research? a. It is possible for a sociologist to remain value-free. b. It is not important for a sociologist to remain value-free. c. Value judgments and subjectivity lead to better research. d. Every sociologist makes some value judgments, even about the problems and topics he or she chooses to study. ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Page 54 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Value Judgments in Research 39. Perhaps the most important outcome of feminist methodology is that: a. it provides new and unique techniques for gathering data. b. the focus on women’s experiences, in addition to men’s experiences, has increased the generalizability of the research. c. it has created new jobs for women in research. d. it prioritizes women and girls over men and boys. ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Page 54 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Feminist Methodology 40. Sandra Harding’s (1987) three elements of feminist research include all of the following EXCEPT: a. treating women’s experiences as legitimate in the field of sociology, which has always been male-dominated. b. engaging in social science that may lead to policy changes. c. prioritizing women’s and girls’ experiences over men’s and boys’ experiences. d. taking into account the researcher as much as the overt subject matter being studied. ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 55 TOP: Factual OBJ: Feminist Methodology 41. One of the positive outcomes of sociology’s long-term male dominance is: a. the evolution of feminist methodology to complement it and add to the scientific accumulation of knowledge. b. that sociology is now a female-dominated profession. c. that male sociologists have now turned all of their attention to creating equality in the discipline. d. that sociology remains a male-dominated field. ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 54 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Feminist Methodology 42. Positivist sociologists tend to use which of the following types of measures? a. quantitative b. qualitative c. spurious d. invalid ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 57 TOP: Factual OBJ: Theory and Research 43. Interpretive sociologists examine meanings attached to behaviors. This leads them to use which of the following measures most commonly? a. quantitative b. qualitative c. spurious d. invalid ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 57 TOP: Factual OBJ: Theory and Research 44. Sandra is doing research on cheating among students at Duke University. The student body at Duke will serve as her: a. sample. b. population. c. random sample. d. fieldwork. ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 52 TOP: Applied OBJ: Population 45. Charles is a sociologist studying a population of gay fathers in the United States. He interviews 200 men in his data collection. These 200 men comprise what researchers call a: a. census. b. selection bias. c. sample. d. participant observation. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 52 TOP: Applied OBJ: Sample 46. The subset of a population from which a researcher collects data is known as a: a. census. b. selection bias. c. sample. d. survey. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 52 TOP: Factual OBJ: Sample 47. A(n) ____________ is an in-depth look at a specific phenomenon or situation in a particular social setting, and is common in qualitative research. a. experiment. b. case study. c. survey. d. participant observation. ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 53 TOP: Factual OBJ: Case Studies 48. If a sociologist studies one high school in a study of the effectiveness of its Parent-Teacher Association, he or she is using which of the following research methods? a. an experiment b. a case study c. a panel study d. content analysis ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 53 TOP: Applied OBJ: Case Studies 49. All of the following are strengths of the case study method EXCEPT that it is: a. useful for obtaining very detailed information. b. a useful starting point for exploring new topics. c. useful for creating large-scale generalizations. d. useful for understanding causal mechanisms indicated in large-scale surveys. ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: Page 53 TOP: Factual OBJ: Case Studies 50. Although qualitative studies are rich in detail and offer an in-depth look at a particular population and/or phenomenon, due to their limited scope they sometimes suffer from low: a. validity. b. generalizability. c. representativeness. d. reliability. ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 53 TOP: Factual OBJ: Case Studies 51. Mitchell Duneier’s study of homeless men on New York City’s Sixth Avenue involved hanging out with his research subjects to collect data. This type of methodology is known as: a. participant observation. b. a case study. c. a survey. d. an experiment. ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 57 TOP: Applied OBJ: Participant Observation 52. Which of the following might be an advantage of participant observation research? a. The researcher has considerable control over the conditions of the research. b. The researcher can uncover what people “do” rather than simply what they say they “do.” c. The research itself is often limited in scope—which is important to sociological research. d. It is a useful method for studying large and diverse populations. ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 57 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Participant Observation 53. Georgia has volunteered at the local crisis center. While she is volunteering, she is given permission to “gather data” and ask the women about the circumstances surrounding their abuse. What method will Georgia most likely use? a. experiment b. survey c. interviews d. content analysis ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 58 TOP: Applied OBJ: Interviews 54. There are advantages and disadvantages to different interview techniques. What might be an advantage that structured interviews have over unstructured (open-ended) interviews? a. It is easier to ask more personal questions. b. It is easier to make careful tabulations and comparisons of answers. c. It is easier to get more detailed information. d. It is easier to develop a rapport with the respondent. ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 58–59 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Interviews 55. An ordered series of questions intended to elicit information from research respondents is known as: a. an experiment. b. participant observation. c. a case study. d. a survey. ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 59 TOP: Factual OBJ: Surveys 56. Many colleges and universities have gone to an online system for evaluating teaching effectiveness. Although this process guarantees anonymity, the completion rate (percentage of students who fill out evaluations) has dropped. Which of the following is NOT a significant problem with low response rates in this situation? a. Students who complete the survey may be different in significant ways from those that do not. b. Students who do not complete the evaluations may end up taking the wrong classes. c. Only students who like their instructors may complete the evaluations. d. Instructors may not get accurate feedback about their teaching methods. ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 59 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Surveys 57. The main reason that achieving high response rates and limiting selection bias are so important is that they lead to: a. increasing generalizability. b. decreasing generalizability. c. increasing validity. d. decreasing validity. ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 59 TOP: Applied OBJ: Surveys 58. The General Social Survey (GSS) is replicated yearly with a new sample of 2,000 respondents. This is an example of: a. an experiment. b. participant observation. c. a repeated cross-sectional survey. d. a longitudinal study. ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 60 TOP: Factual OBJ: Surveys 59. A type of longitudinal study in which the same sample of respondents is tracked over a long period of time is known as: a. an experiment. b. participant observation. c. the historical method. d. a panel study. ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 60 TOP: Factual OBJ: Surveys 60. ____________ is probably the best method available to the social scientist interested in collecting original data and for describing a population too large to observe directly. a. Survey research b. Content analysis c. Comparative research d. An experiment ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 59 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Surveys 61. A potential shortcoming of survey research is that surveys: a. tend to focus more on what people do than what they say. b. rely on people’s honesty and willingness to cooperate. c. cannot reflect the total population. d. cannot be used on large populations. ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 59 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Surveys 62. Which of the following methods involves collecting data from written reports or other artifacts in order to discover patterns in behavior/attitudes dating to an earlier time period? a. experiments b. audit studies c. panel surveys d. historical methods ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 60 TOP: Factual OBJ: Historical Methods 63. Jackson is using newspaper articles dating from the early 1950s to study unofficial attitudes toward working women post-WWII. Jackson is using what research method? a. experimental b. content analysis c. comparative research d. historical methods ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Pages 60–61 TOP: Applied OBJ: Historical Methods 64. Rogers Brubaker (1992) studied the notions of citizen and statehood in both France and Germany. His method of research is known as: a. comparative research. b. a case study. c. an experiment. d. content analysis. ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 61–62 TOP: Factual OBJ: Comparative Research 65. The general approach to comparative research is to: a. study a total population or census. b. find cases that match on every variable. c. use a panel study approach only. d. find cases that match on many potentially relevant dimensions, yet vary on just one. ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 62 TOP: Factual OBJ: Comparative Research 66. Comparative research usually involves studying which of the following? a. two cultures that have virtually nothing in common, in order to determine why they are so different b. two cultures that have a good number of things in common but differ in one important dimension—this dimension becomes the subject of the study c. several groups within a particular culture in order to identify how and why they differ from the dominant culture d. a dominant and subordinate group in a particular culture to determine the ways in which their activities continue to reproduce inequalities ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Pages 61–62 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Comparative Research 67. Perhaps the most difficult method to apply to the social sciences, as compared with laboratory-based natural sciences, is/are: a. surveys. b. experimental methods. c. historical methods. d. content analysis. ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 62–63 TOP: Applied OBJ: Experiments 68. LeeAnn is a graduate student in sociology who is studying media depictions of gun violence in popular films such as Rambo and Scarface. Her choice of methods is known as: a. an audit study. b. a panel study. c. content analysis. d. surveys. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 64 TOP: Applied OBJ: Content Analysis 69. Harry’s study compared how the posts of “men seeking women” differed from the posts of “women seeking men” on Craigslist. What research method was Harry using when he compared how often men and women mentioned particular characteristics (e.g., attactive, sexy, athletic, professional, educated, etc.)? a. historical methods b. comparative research c. content analysis d. interviews ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 64 TOP: Applied OBJ: Content Analysis 70. All of the following are described as golden rules of ethical conduct in social research EXCEPT: a. do no harm. b. informed consent. c. never debrief. d. voluntary participation. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 65 TOP: Factual OBJ: Ethics in Research 71. Research subjects have a right to know that they are participating in a study and what the study consists of. This is known as: a. involuntary participation. b. informed consent. c. manifest content. d. latent content. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 65 TOP: Factual OBJ: Ethics in Research 72. A sociologist studying minor children, pregnant women, or inmates must get approval, as these groups are known as: a. panel populations. b. census populations. c. protected populations. d. total populations. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 65 TOP: Applied OBJ: Ethics in Research 73. If a field researcher cannot reveal that a study is being done for fear that this revelation might significantly affect the social processes being studied, (s)he is finding out that: a. it is sometimes difficult to make a distinction between legitimate investigation and unjustified intrusion. b. it is sometimes difficult to follow the norms of voluntary participation and informed consent. c. in order to get valid data, sociologists must learn to deemphasize ethics in their research. d. it is sometimes difficult for sociologists to do no harm to the people they study. ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Page 65 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Ethics in Research 74. Sometimes a researcher may find it necessary to go against the ethical norms of informed consent and voluntary participation. Which of the following would NOT be considered one of these times? a. when it would be impossible or unfeasible to obtain permission b. when the researcher feels his or her presence may disrupt the behavior under investigation c. when the researcher’s subjects are underage, incarcerated, or pregnant d. when it is thought that voluntary participation could introduce bias into the investigation ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 65 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Ethics in Research 75. Social research aimed to influence public policy and society as a whole is referred to as: a. feminist sociology. b. historical sociology. c. private sociology. d. public sociology. ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 66 TOP: Factual OBJ: Public Sociology Chapter 3 Multiple Choice 1. The word culture derives from the Latin word colere, which means: a. a cult. b. an ideology. c. to cultivate. d. a plan of action. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 73 TOP: Factual OBJ: Culture 2. Which of the following was a poet and cultural critic who defined culture as the pursuit of perfection and broad knowledge of the world, in contrast to narrow self-centeredness and material gain? a. Matthew Arnold b. Émile Durkheim c. Dalton Conley d. Karl Marx ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 75 TOP: Factual OBJ: Culture 3. Culture can be said to be anything but: a. behavior. b. psychology. c. nature. d. symbols. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 73 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Culture 4. Culture tends to be: a. stable. b. relative. c. concrete. d. within the person’s personality. ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 73 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Culture 5. During the 1800s culture was defined by Matthew Arnold as an ideal, something that is opposed to the real world in which we live. Sociologists today define culture as: a. the sum total of beliefs, behaviors and practices that humans create to adapt to the enviornment around them. b. only the nonmaterial aspects of people’s lives, like values and norms. c. only the material aspects of people’s lives, those things created by humans to adapt to the environment around them. d. a system of concepts and relationships that explains cause and effect. ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 73 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Culture 6. The rapid social changes in Europe, particularly in Great Britain during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, were mainly due to: a. the rise of the feudal system. b. industrialization. c. new farm implements. d. decrease in the population. ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Page 75 TOP: Factual OBJ: Culture 7. Sociologists tend to study culture: a. only as it applies in their home context. b. only as it applies to foreign cultures. c. as it applies to historical cultures. d. as it applies to foreign, historical and home cultures. ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 77 TOP: Factual OBJ: Culture 8. One of the two main categories of culture that includes values, beliefs, norms, and behaviors is known as: a. subculture. b. counterculture. c. nonmaterial or symbolic culture. d. material culture. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Pages 76–77 TOP: Factual OBJ: Material versus Nonmaterial Culture 9. Everything in our constructed environment, including technology, buildings, furniture, clothing, and books, is part of: a. subculture. b. counterculture. c. nonmaterial or symbolic culture. d. material culture. ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 76 TOP: Factual OBJ: Material versus Nonmaterial Culture 10. According to ____________, the language we speak directly influences and reflects the way we think about and see the world. a. the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis b. the high-low culture debate c. Marxist ideology d. the Law of Averages ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 78 TOP: Factual OBJ: Material versus Nonmaterial Culture 11. Baseball in the United States and cockfighting in Bali are examples of which of the following? a. counterculture b. nonmaterial or symbolic culture c. cultural scripts d. ethnocentrism ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 82–83 TOP: Applied OBJ: Material versus Nonmaterial Culture 12. An example of material culture is: a. values. b. money. c. norms. d. behavior. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 77 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Material versus Nonmaterial culture 13. An example of nonmaterial culture is: a. money. b. books. c. values. d. cars. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 77 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Material versus Nonmaterial Culture 14. Terms such as LOL, ;-), and LMAO have been created by the Internet/instant messaging. This new type of “language” is called: a. subcultures. b. emoticons. c. anti-symbols. d. high culture. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 77 TOP: Factual OBJ: Material versus Nonmaterial Culture 15. The study of culture tells us that: a. the way “our” culture lives tends to be the most efficient. b. there are many ways to view the same symbol. c. most foreign cultures are primitive. d. most cultures don’t understand the meaning of morals. ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 78 TOP: Factual OBJ: Material versus Nonmaterial Culture 16. A type of nonmaterial culture known as ____________ is a system of concepts and relationships sometimes used to understand cause and effect. a. high art b. ideology c. cultural relativism d. ethnocentrism ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Page 79 TOP: Applied OBJ: Ideology 17. Galileo’s discovery that the Earth revolved around the sun rather than standing at the center of the universe is an example of: a. cultural relativism. b. emoticons. c. the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. d. a disproved ideology. ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Page 79 TOP: Applied OBJ: Ideology 18. Ideologies are: a. systems that change only when massive revolutions take place in particular societies. b. systems that remain constant over time. c. often brought into question when certain aspects of that ideology are challenged. d. no longer existent in modern societies. ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: Pages 79–80 TOP: Factual OBJ: Ideology 19. Margaret Mead wrote Coming of Age in Samoa (1928), where she found that women in Samoa engaged in and enjoyed casual sex before they were married. This finding challenged: a. ideology. b. sexual scripts. c. cultural scripts. d. all of the above. ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Page 81–82 TOP: Applied OBJ: Ideology | Cultural Scripts 20. Low culture such as hip-hop music is also known as: a. counterculture. b. popular culture. c. cultural scripts. d. cultural relativism. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Pages 80–81 TOP: Factual OBJ: High and Low Culture 21. Which of the following is true regarding the value of high versus low culture? a. High culture is much more valuable than low culture. b. Low culture is much more valuable than high culture. c. Both are equally valuable depending upon one’s perspective. d. Neither is valuable at all, so popular culture is preferred. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Pages 80 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: High and Low Culture 22. While they are difficult to define, ____________ are smaller subgroups within a larger dominant society that share some of the dominant cultural values, but also have some of their own, unique material and nonmaterial or symbolic culture. a. high cultures b. low cultures c. mini-cultures d. subcultures ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 83 TOP: Factual OBJ: Subculture 23. The various musical genres and the groups inspired by them, such as heavy metal music and the goths, are examples of which of the following? a. high cultures b. subcultures c. socialization d. emoticons ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 83 TOP: Applied OBJ: Subculture 24. Subcultures: a. can be easily differentiated from the dominant culture. b. don’t exist in cultures where everybody is the same. c. are hard to definitively define. d. exist only in cultures where power between classes exists. ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 83 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Subculture 25. Goth culture tends to exist: a. only in the United Kingdom. b. only in the United States. c. cross-culturally. d. no more: it died out in the 1990s. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 86 TOP: Factual OBJ: Subculture 26. If you are a member of a subculture, like the goth subculture, you can be sure that the meaning of certain words and the behavior of the members: a. can be different within the group. b. remain consistent across the group. c. differ greatly from the dominant culture. d. remain consistent for several years and then change across the groups. ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Page 86 TOP: Applied OBJ: Subculture 27. First names that are given to males often cross over to females in the United States, according to Lieberson’s research. This is referred to as: a. the androgyny of names. b. socially structured naming. c. the gendering of names. d. the cross-cultural impact on names. ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 84 TOP: Factual OBJ: Androgyny of Names 28. Stanley Lieberson, a sociology professor at Harvard, studied culture using fist names. He found that names: a. reflect cultural trends of specific times. b. that are racially coded don’t affect discrimination. c. tend to remain gender-specific across history. d. involved gender, but not race. ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 84 TOP: Factual OBJ: Androgyny of Names 29. If ____________ are abstract cultural beliefs, then ____________ are how they are put into play. a. values; norms b. norms; values c. subcultures; countercultures d. countercultures; subcultures ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 87 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Cultural Effects 30. Class mobility and equal opportunity have their roots in: a. the feudal system in England 600 years ago. b. China from the 1700s. c. communist Russia of the 1950s. d. the United States’ idea of the American Dream. ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Page 87 TOP: Factual OBJ: Cultural Effects 31. Norms are to ____________ as values are to ____________. a. attitudes; behavior b. behavior; attitudes c. consistency; change d. change; consistency ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Page 87 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Norms 32. The experience of learning a culture’s norms, values, and so on, is known as: a. socialization. b. ideology. c. hegemony. d. reflection. ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 88 TOP: Factual OBJ: Reflection Theory 33. The theory that states that culture is a projection of the social structures and relationships into the public sphere is known as: a. symbolic interactionism. b. functionalism. c. reflection. d. conflict. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 88 TOP: Factual OBJ: Reflection Theory 34. Karl Marx asserted that culture: a. is a reflection of the means of production of a particular time. b. creates the way we survive in a particular environment. c. is nonexistent in socialist societies. d. exists only in capitalist societies. ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Page 88 TOP: Factual OBJ: Reflection Theory 35. Reflection theory is limited because: a. it fails to take into account why some cultural products have staying power and others fall by the wayside. b. it looks only at American culture. c. it tends to state that culture has no impact on society. d. it is limited to a specific time in history. ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Page 89 TOP: Factual OBJ: Reflection Theory 36. It is important to take into account differences across cultures without making value judgments. This is known as: a. cultural scripts. b. high culture. c. counterculture. d. cultural relativism. ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 81 TOP: Factual OBJ: Cultural Relativism 37. Ruth Benedict, in her Patterns of Culture (1934), coined the term cultural relativism, which means: a. creating culture that is similar to other cultures. b. that groups will become more similar as they mature. c. taking into account the differences across cultures without passing judgement or assigning value. d. individuals will ignore the behavior of others if it is not consistent with the values of their own group. ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 81 TOP: Factual OBJ: Cultural Relativism 38. Gender and engaging in enjoyable premarital sex are examples of learned behaviors that are not natural or universal, and are known as: a. subcultures. b. cultural scripts. c. material culture. d. counterculture. ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 82 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Cultural Scripts 39. If a person judges another group by his or her own standards, he or she is being: a. culturally relative. b. realistic. c. symbolic. d. ethnocentric. ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 74 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Ethnocentrism 40. You take a trip to Alaska and find that Eskimo families sleep together naked to stay warm. You find this practice disgusting and can’t understand why they don’t consider this incestuous. You are being: a. discriminatory. b. ethnocentric. c. culturally relativistic. d. moral. ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 74 TOP: Applied OBJ: Ethnocentrism 41. Until Europeans came into contact with non-Westerners, they tended to see their culture as: a. needing change. b. fluid, based on the social class distinctions. c. inferior to non-Western cultures. d. the only way to live. ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 74 TOP: Factual OBJ: Ethnocentrism 42. The United States has laws that prohibit cockfighting. People in Bali would say the people in the United States are: a. culturally advanced. b. more moral. c. ethnocentric. d. from high culture. ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 82–83 TOP: Applied OBJ: Ethnocentrism 43. The first form of mass media was the: a. television. b. book. c. silent film. d.

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